The disorder can affect anyone, but it tends to occur more often in middle-aged women.
At this point it is worth clarifying that we distinguish primary BMS in the case that there is no other underlying health issue, essentially as being a psychosomatic symptom, while if comorbidity exists, such as anemia, diabetes, thyroid disease, etc. disease is identified as secondary BMS.
There is no specific test for primary BMS, which makes diagnosis difficult. Other features of this disorder include anxiety, depression and social isolation. Therefore, the physician should rule out other conditions before diagnosing primary BMS. Conversely, in case of detection of a disease related to the patient’s symptoms, a physician could speculate that this might be a case of secondary BMS. In such cases, it is absolutely necessary to take the patient’s medical history which will contribute to the diagnosis of the disease.
During clinical examination there are no sign of any disease within the oral cavity. The main symptoms of BMS includes burning, stinging or tingling in various areas of the mouth with possible relapses and flares. In addition, there may be concomitant elements such as a subjective feeling of dry mouth, hypersalivation (rarely reported), taste disturbances in the form of reduced taste sensation, a bitter or salty taste, or feeling a knot in the throat, etc. Symptoms may be located on the tongue, lips, and cheeks, sometimes experienced in other locations, over a period of months or years.
As far as the treatment is concerned and regarding the symptoms of stinging and/or burning, solutions with analgesic action are administered. However, in relatively severe cases with gradual deterioration, it is possible to administer neurological drugs. In fact, different neurological preparations may be tried because as we know there is no specific medication that is universally successful.