It is the unpleasant odor that exudes from the oral cavity and which often puts the patient in an embarrassing position in their social life.
Bad breath can be due to a variety of causes, but in most cases it is attributed to periodontal disease, decayed teeth, worn prosthetic restorations and intense coating on the dorsal surface of the tongue. In fact, the increase in the concentration of specific microbial populations in the oral cavity leads to an increased concentration of volatile sulfur metabolic by-products that are the cause of bad breath. In addition to this cause, other less common factors include specific gum infections e.g. ulcerative gingivitis, dry mouth, foci of necrosis (as in cases of osteonecrosis or cancer with necrotic - ulcerative areas in the mouth or oesophagus), tonsillitis or pus from tonsillar crypts, sinusitis, active gastroesophageal reflux, oesophageal diversions, etc. Naturally, it is expected that in many cases it is necessary to consult with Doctors of other specialties, e.g. Otolaryngologist, Gastroenterologist, in order to document a specific diagnosis.
In the case of common halitosis attributed to the microbes of the oral cavity, it is necessary to check for prosthetic restorations that require replacement, restoration of decayed teeth, appropriate periodontal treatment, instructions for implementing an oral hygiene program and regular re-examination. In other cases, the treatment of each pathogenic outbreak will contribute to the cessation of bad breath.